If Quirrell got burnt when he wanted to hurt Harry, why didn’t others? I mean, was this power Harry had from his mother mentioned in any other situation? Or did Lily's sacrifice just work for Voldemort and Quirrell died because of Voldemort?

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The sacrifice only made it so the Dark Lord couldn’t touch Harry.

Lily’s sacrifice only made it so the Dark Lord specifically couldn’t touch Harry - it didn’t work on every person who meant Harry harm, or the Dark Lord’s followers, just the Dark Lord himself. In the graveyard, the Dark Lord says that he couldn’t touch Harry after Lily’s sacrifice protected him.

“You all know that on the night I lost my powers and my body, I tried to kill him. His mother died in the attempt to save him – and unwittingly provided him with a protection I admit I had not foreseen … I could not touch the boy.”
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 33 (The Death Eaters)

Wormtail, however, touches Harry with no sign of being in any pain from the contact with him, despite being a Death Eater in the service of the Dark Lord.

“Harry could hear shallow, fast breathing from the depths of the hood; he struggled, and the man hit him – hit him with a hand that had a finger missing. And Harry realised who was under the hood. It was Wormtail.”
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 32 (Flesh, Blood and Bone)

This happens before the Dark Lord uses Harry’s blood in the potion to build his new body, enabling him to touch Harry, so at that point the Dark Lord would be unable to touch Harry, but Wormtail, who worked for him and acted on his behalf just as much as Quirrell did, could. The only reason Quirrell couldn’t touch Harry was that the main piece of the Dark Lord’s soul was in him at the time.

“But why couldn’t Quirrell touch me?’

‘Your mother died to save you. If there is one thing Voldemort cannot understand, it is love. He didn’t realise that love as powerful as your mother’s for you leaves its own mark. Not a scar, no visible sign … to have been loved so deeply, even though the person who loved us is gone, will give us some protection for ever. It is in your very skin. Quirrell, full of hatred, greed and ambition, sharing his soul with Voldemort, could not touch you for this reason. It was agony to touch a person marked by something so good.”
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 17 (The Man with Two Faces)

It also only works on the Dark Lord’s main piece of soul - it doesn’t work on the Horcruxes. Harry touched and interacted with the diary, also before the Dark Lord made himself immune to his touch.

“Oozing back out of the page, in his very own ink, came words Harry had never written.

‘Hello, Harry Potter. My name is Tom Riddle. How did you come by my diary?”
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 13 (The Very Secret Diary)

It was only the Dark Lord’s main soul that couldn’t touch Harry, and when he possessed Quirrell, it also made Quirrell vulnerable to Harry’s touch because the Dark Lord shared his body.

  • 1
    IIRC, he also touched Slytherin's locket, Hufflepuff's cup and Ravenclaw's diadem. – JohnP Oct 15 at 16:27
  • @JohnP Yes, he did, and none of them reacted either! :) – Bellatrix Oct 15 at 16:29

This is explained by Dumbledore when he visits Harry in the Hospital Wing after the confrontation with Quirrel:

“But why couldn’t Quirrell touch me?”

“Your mother died to save you. If there is one thing Voldemort cannot understand, it is love. He didn’t realize that love as powerful as your mother’s for you leaves its own mark. Not a scar, no visible sign ... to have been loved so deeply, even though the person who loved us is gone, will give us some protection forever. It is in your very skin. Quirrell, full of hatred, greed, and ambition, sharing his soul with Voldemort, could not touch you for this reason. It was agony to touch a person marked by something so good.”

From the words I bolded it seems that the burning effect was unique to Quirrel/Voldemort because they were so full of hatred. It sounds like it was specifically the clash of hatred and love that produced the burning effect.

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