In The Crimson King, a soul divided they shed some more light on the enumerations, it would seem that the psycic powers and the enumerations are definitely linked. for example:
When Ahriman landed back on Prospero to for the reanaction of the burning he noted that a fellow legionary named Sanakht(a master swordsman) preferred to stay in the 4th enumeration even in combat because it allowed to him link him more with other beings and thus it was easier for him to perceive the near future allowing him to predict his opponents move.
Further on in this event Ahriman again warned his fellow brothers to "Only stay in the first enumeration" The reason for this is that there was so much suppressed psycic energy that the change would quickly overtake them should they use their powers too much. Him saying that certainly implies that the higher you go in the enumerations the greater power one will be able to wield.
Again a bit further Ahriman was talking about the elite scarab guard and noted that these warriors all had achieved the rank of "Philophisous" and mastered all the enumerations like himself.
It also seems like the different orders within the legions prefer different enumerations because they seem to work better with certain powers.
I do not know of any other sources except of Ahriman that go in depth and explain anything about the enumerations, so we kinda have to trust him on it(he is the chief librarian of the 1000 Sons so he would also be the most qualified on the subject)