This is a short story that I read in a collection sometime in the mid- to late 1980s. The story takes the form of a series of vignettes over a long period of time, possibly including things like article excerpts, television transcripts, etc.
The plot concerns a scientist who deliberately engineers a contagious virus that reduces the fertility rate of people that are infected. It is still possible for infected people to become pregnant, but it takes a very large number of attempts, on average. The scientist takes steps to deliberately spread this virus as widely as possible.
The vignettes at first concern the reaction of the medical and scientific communities to the discovery of the virus. It is already fairly widespread at that point. Birthrates have plummeted around the world. No cure is found. The scientist is eventually discovered as "patient zero" and is either suspected of having engineered the virus (due to his background) or possibly makes a statement to the effect that it was intentional. The scientist is widely despised and is killed by angry mobs shortly thereafter.
Later vignettes establish that either the virus mutates or humanity adapts to its presence, so birthrates begin to increase again. However, the culture of having children has changed dramatically due to the fact that there is no longer any such thing as an accidental birth. The high effort required means that parents are heavily invested in their children from the start, with many positive side effects for society at large. Eventually, the much-reduced population comes to view the scientist as a kind of hero, and
a statue is put up a stamp is commemorated in his honor.
Given the theme and the style, I would assume that this story was written sometime after the mid-1960s, i.e. after the publication of The Population Bomb and The Limits to Growth. However, it may have been written as early as the 50s.