Ten years ago or more I got a book of short stories out of a library. If I remember correctly is looked old (thick paper, grainy printing) then, so probably an old book.
In the book there was a story about a man (scientist?) who has a submersible. As far as I remember it was connected to his ship via a chain, with a separate telephone (more like an intercom) line. It was lowered using a crane.
I think the telephone cable snapped on the first dive, but he was pulled up again safely. On another dive he describes the fish curiously looking through his window at him. When he nears (or has arrived on) the bottom of the sea he sees a creature coming towards him. I think the creature had fins (I can't remember where, maybe on its back or limbs, or in place of limbs), but was semi-humanoid (it had a head as far as I can recall). The creature somehow cuts his submersible loose, and drags it away. The man inside sees a city on the ocean floor, with lots of similar creatures. There may have been a temple mentioned, if so, I think they took him up to the temple.
There were parts of other larger works in the book, so this also might be part of a larger work. I have read so many similar books, so I can't tell you which stories where in it, but I think there was one about adventurers flying in a dirigible.