Probably not, but no one can say for sure. The relevant text from The Silmarillion is:
Yet he yielded at last to the will of Maedhros, and they took counsel together how they should lay hands on the Silmarils. And they disguised themselves, and came in the night to the camp of Eönwe, and crept into the place where the Silmarils were guarded; and they slew the guards, and laid hands on the jewels. Then all the camp was raised against them, and they prepared to die, defending themselves until the last. But Eönwe would not permit the slaying of the sons of Feanor; and departing unfought they fled far away. Each of them took to himself a Silmaril, for they said 'Since one is lost to us, and but two remain, and we two alone of our brothers, so is it plain that fate would have us share the heirlooms of our father.'
But the jewel burned the hand of Maedhros in pain unbearable; and he perceived that it was as Eönwe had said, and that his right thereto had become void, and that the oath was vain. And being in anguish and despair he cast himself into a gaping chasm filled with fire, and so ended; and the Silmaril that he bore was taken into the bosom of the Earth,
And it is told of Maglor that he could not endure the pain with which the Silmaril tormented him; and he cast it at last into the Sea, and thereafter he wandered ever upon the shores, singing in pain and regret beside the waves. For Maglor was mighty among the singers of old, named only after Daeron of Doriath; but he came never back among the people of the Elves. And thus it came to pass that the Silmarils found their long homes one in the airs of heaven, and one in the fires of the heart of the world, and one in the deep waters.
Not very specific! All you can say for sure is that Eönwe's camp must have been east of Belierand, since Beleriand to the west had foundered during the War which ended the First Age.
Yet it's very hard to see why his camp would be in what was later Mordor, since it was far to the south and east of where the action was -- Lindon or even the area where the Shire later was would have been much closer to the fighting.
But if you argue that Maedhros may have traveled far from where he stole the Silmaril, and finally gave up at the site of Mt. Doom, it's impossible to say that this is not right.