Short and sweet:
there is no logical sound explanation for that ridiculous scene. It's bad writing on a facepalm level, showing the absolute lack of understanding of optical as well as digital image processing on the side of the writers and producers.
TL;DR - Version:
The out-of-lore explanation is very likely that they wanted to put an emphasis on Sarus superior eyesight compared to humans, so they constructed a situation where they could showcase it. So far about the idea. The execution was outright naive, stupid and demonstrative of their incompetence.
The discovery has state-of-the-art cameras of the mid-23rd century aboard, so the first idea that those could not zoom in enough on meter high letters on a ship thats just a few kilometers away is silly enough. From here on, the levels of ridiculous just start growing.
If it was a somehow all-the-way analog display technology (which would require an extraordinary amount of dedication for a ship that is not focused on exploration), the image size could easily be increased, either by lenses or a high res (23rd century high-res, not 2019 high-res) digital zoom. However, the idea that it realy was an analog display mechanism seems realy far fetched for a star ships bridge display with overlay, navigational and tactical data etc.. No, just no.
The 99.9% more logical and practical assumption would be that it is a digital display. If that is the case, no god-like superior eyesight in the universe could enhance anything of a picture that was rasterized into pixels. If that is the maximum zoomlevel those cameras and the display system attached to them can achieve, than even watching the display with the hubble space telescope will only show you the pixels in large, but not reveal anymore details that you could not have made out with plain eyesight.
This is just another moment (in an otherwise quite entertaining fantasy show) where the producers utterly demonstrate their total lack in understanding OR the purposefull disregard of any believable technological pseudo-science, which is a watermark of everything Bad Robot, J.J. Abrahms and Alex Kurtzmann (who is a disciple and living fanboy of J.J.) touch.
Before those took over, Star Trek always at least tried to find a semi-justifiable way of explanation for their gadgets and deus-ex-machina technology that could somehow be put in context with science. This is a fundamental element of "SCIENCE fiction". If you take away the effort to at least try to base everything in sound science, it becomes pure fiction and you could as well have unicorns, dragons and magicians.
The registry number on the crashed vessel is NCC-815, which is a bow down of producer Alex Kurtzmann to his mentor and buddy J.J. Abrahms. It's the registry number of the "Oceanic Flight 815" that Hurley Reyes crashed with on the Island in J.J.s TV series "LOST". And it is a part of the omnipresent magical numbers 4,8,15,16,23,42 in that series.