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It is well known that the Gungan species is divided into two races, the Otolla and the Ankura, even to small children. However, the astonishing biological diversity of Naboo seems a subject still in need of some study.

Darwin showed that there can be great variation within a species, with the finches of the Galapagos as an example. But it was also demonstrated that these variations are the result of natural selection.

  • What are the major hypotheses for the divergent physical characteristics of the two main Gungan races?

Also, according to archeological records, their civilization is said to stretch back ~.5 million years to the last glacial maximum—is it known if this may have been a factor?

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If you accept an answer based on a pre-Disney era source, the divergence of the Gungan races was the result of the early Ankura emerging onto land the early Otolla submerging in waters. Star Wars: The New Essential Guide to Alien Species states:

While the members of the clans exhibit different outward biological features. they remain the same in terms of their inner physiology. The two primacy tribal races within Gungan society are the Otolla, which are the most numerous, and the Ankura, a race that does not have long ears, eyestalks, or bills. Scientists believe that while these two different races share common ancestry, the Ankura have lived on land longer than the Otolla, and have therefore evolved to look more like a land-based form.

StarWars.com, on the other hand, confirms the Ankura existed prior to the Otolla.

The Ankura are a much older species of Gungan than the more common Otolla.

  • I do accept this source. (Will wait to see if other theories emerge, but this would definitely be a candidate for formal acceptance:) – DukeZhou Feb 3 at 21:20

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