We know that ships in the Star Trek universe can travel very fast, but this is still generally limited by the technology of the time. Sometimes travel is accomplished by instantaneous travel using wormholes. Q teleporting, or slipstream travel.
The Caretaker used his array to pull Voyager across the universe. From the way it was depicted in the show, this was essentially a wave of energy that pushed Voyager across space - it didn't transport them immediately, place them into a corridor, or open any kind of 'shortcut' through another dimension.
Assuming that the wave simply accelerated the ship to way above warp-10, how was the entire crew (not to mention the ship itself) not liquefied by the forces? I would assume that the inertial dampeners and whatever other technology was in place could easily handle speeds that the ship was intended to travel at, but Voyager hit speeds exponentially higher than what it was capable of managing on its own. I can't imagine that safety technology of the day could simply mitigate any arbitrary amount of acceleration - surely it had upper limits just like any other tech of the time.