Short answer, based on comment thread:
The timeline is inexact, but the events described - which include multiple indications of interactive sabotage - span over several days, showing the aggressors (GrayCris) both acting in near-real-time, and undertaking time-consuming actions:
- The initial sabotage indications of 'abort command' during the emergency, the missing map sections, and the doctored survey package.
- Hours, or most of a day, seem to pass between the fauna attack and the communication with DeltFall, which would have been monitored by GrayCris.
- The map expedition happened "at the beginning of the day cycle, in the morning light," so that was at least the day after the fauna attack. They return to their habitat that afternoon, and that's when MurderBot receives the download. At the end of that "day cycle," they realize they can't contact DeltFall group, indicating that within these days GrayCris was able to mount an involved attack upon DeltFall.
So the amount of time elapsed - at least two days - would have been plenty for GrayCris, who could interact with HubSystem via the satellite, to interactively manage the escalating interference. The implication is that they were directly responsible for the upgrade packet.
implying that the an upgrade was transmitted to the satellite in
response to detecting the plan to depart for DeltFall.
Actually, the upgrade was transmitted before PreservationAux was even aware of a problem with DeltFall (page 45):
I'd just done another perimeter walk and checked the drones, when the
feed informed me that HubSystem had updates from the satellite and
there was a package for me. I have a trick where I make HubSystem
think I received it and then just put it in external storage....
It was a typical, boring day, in other words. If Bharadwaj wasn't still
recuperating in Medical, you could almost forget what had happened.
But at the end of the day cycle, Dr. Mensah called me and said, "I
think we have a problem. We can't contact DeltFall Group."
The decision to send the upgrade packet to attempt to compromise MurderBot was made in response to the awareness that PreservationAux was aware of issues (the missing map sections, the elisions about dangerous fauna in the Hazard Report). GrayCris would have been aware of this very early on when PreservationAux contacted DeltFall (page 32):
Mensah leaned back in her chair and steepled her fingers. "All right,
this is what we'll do. I want you each to check the individual
sections of the survey package for your specialties. Try to pinpoint
any more missing information. When we have a partial list, I'll call
DeltFall and see if they can send us the files."
But given the remoteness of the planet that Murderbot is on, how could
enough time have elapsed for a light round trip between the
formulation of the plan and the transmission of the update to the
Well, by definition, the satellite isn't all that remote; it's orbiting the planet. It is close enough to be used to time "equipment failures" closely:
I was distracted, but still caught the moment when the autopilot cut
out.... [Mensah] just made some thoughtful grumpy noises and adjusted
our course away from the mountain the failing autopilot would have
slammed us into.
It's communication and action through the wormhole that's got noticeable latency, not the satellite.