I read it in a collection in the early 80s. I believe it was in the near future.
A young prisoner was enrolled in some sort of program where he was educated as part of an experimental program. Once he was deemed sufficiently rehabilitated he was eventually released to begin a new life as a college educated citizen and proof that the program works.
He plots secretly and builds up an underground movement that eventually takes over the television and radio stations and mounts a coup against the government. I seem to remember having tanks roll up on the White House or some other famed government building.
I thought maybe it was Ben Bova but couldn't find any stories of his that match.