We're all familiar with Palpatine's homeworld of Naboo in the current canon, as well as Legends material after the release of Episode 1.
What I want to look at is content from before that movie. Did Palpatine have a homeworld, and what was it?
While I stopped reading Star Wars novels and comics during the prequels, I read all the novels before the prequels. No. There was nothing written before the prequels about the Emperor's background. The only thing we knew about him that was personal was his name, and only because it was in the Star Wars novelization.