In Thor:Ragnarok when Bruce Banner falls from the space ship onto the rainbow walkway to help in the fight against Hella he falls expecting to change into the Hulk only to hit the ground as Banner yet doesn't sustain any injuries. Is this movie magic or does his Bruce Banner form share some of the healing/near indestructible qualities of the Hulk? I don't know the comics that well so apologies if this is covered there so answered for MCU but would like to hear other non MCU points in the comments.
It doesn't seem like it's harder to break his bones or do soft tissue damage to him. But things that should kill him just don't. Instead he transforms, instantly healing the damage. His comic book counterpart healed back from an apparent death that Banner had planned to instantly kill himself. His movie self described how he put a bullet into his brain in as close to instant death as is reasonably possible and he simply transformed and spat the bullet out. Ultimately Bruce Banner is a man with superpowers and not a separate being from the Hulk and their apparent distinct personalities are the product of his own psychological issues. So even with MCU Banner it's dubious whether any damage that left him with most of his flesh could actually kill him. Damage just doesn't stick to the Hulk, and ultimately Banner is the Hulk.
Banner is just as fragile as a normal human being. We have seen him get hurt in his human form.
- While the first hulk film is not considered canon, we do see Banner being subdued by the military.
- In The incredible Hulk, we see him cutting his finger in the soda factory, which causes drops of blood fall into the bottles below.
- In Thor: Ragnarok, we do see him fall flat onto the bridge, and there's all the chance in the world that he broke a huge number of bones. However, he then Hulks out, and Hulk mode essentially insta-heals all his wounds and breaks.
So in summary, No. Bruce Banner doesn't share the physical characteristics of The Hulk.
In the comics, he dies a rather mundane death when Hawkeye shoots him with a special arrow that he helped design, meaning an arrow can penetrate him just like a normal human.