In Captain Marvel and Avengers: Endgame, we never see Captain Marvel use the same sort of portal-like travel as Thanos does.
However, we do see instances where she appears to travel very quickly:
At the end of the movie, Captain Marvel and the Kree cruiser with the Skrulls in it zip off into space without using the Jump Gate system. Unless the Skrulls were going to take a very (very very) long time to get to their new home, Captain Marvel would have to be helping them to travel much faster than light.
In the mid-credits scene, Captain Marvel appears right behind the Avengers that are examining Fury's pager just after it turns off. Similarly, in Avengers: Endgame, she takes just 23 days to locate the Benatar in deep space and seems to return it to Earth soon after that. No matter how much time it took in total to get back to Earth, she must have been traveling much faster than light.
So, can she travel quickly? Yes. Can she use portals? Probably not.