In Captain Marvel, we never see the titular character use the same sort of portal-like travel as Thanos does.
However, we do see instances where Captain Marvel appears to travel very quickly:
At the end of the movie, Captain Marvel and the Kree cruiser with the Skrulls in it zip off into space without using the Jump Gate system. Unless the Skrulls were going to take a very (very very) long time to get to their new home, Captain Marvel would have to be helping them to travel much faster than light.
In the mid-credits scene, Captain Marvel appears right behind the Avengers that are examining Fury's pager just after it turns off. We don't know when she received the call from Fury or when she started heading back to Earth, but it was probably very quick. We could possibly find out the answer to this in Avengers: Endgame.
So, can she travel quickly? Yes. Can she use portals? Probably not.