Why didn't everyone who got blown into space from Thor's ship freeze within seconds like Ebony Maw did?
We can assume that everyone visible on the ship is Asgardian and while they aren't all gods like Thor we can assume that they probably have some similar physical traits to him. As Paul D. Waite commented (I'm new to StackExchange so I don't know how to tag yet) in the first Thor movie we see several Asgardians who may be heroes but are not gods themselves fighting frost giants on Jotunheim which is probably incredibly cold, implying they have inhuman resistance to elements.
Going by that assumption when we see Thor not frozen drifting in space later in the movie, we can make the assumption that he didn't immediately freeze because he is Asgardian.
Although the fact that he's still alive after being adrift for an extended period of time with no breathable air I would attribute to his god status. Especially since the rest of the Asgardians that didn't escape were all dead.