It appears to be exclusive to the Naboo and so we wouldn't see it used by the Rebels or other forces outside of the planet. The Star Wars Databank has the following to say:
NABOO N-1 STARFIGHTER
Protecting the skies and space around Naboo is the N-1 starfighter. Its sleek design exemplifies the philosophy of art and function witnessed throughout Naboo technology. Its twin radial J-type engines are capped in gleaming chrome and trail long delicate-looking finials behind the ship's single-pilot compartment. Behind the pilot sits a standard astromech droid, plugged into an abbreviated, ventrally-fed socket which requires the droid to compress slightly in order to fit within the vessel's curves. The fighter features twin blaster cannons, twin fire-linked torpedo launchers, and a capable automatic pilot feature.
Star Wars Databank, NABOO N-1 STARFIGHTER
The Databank also references its affiliations as "Galactic Republic, Naboo Royal Guards" and its only location is "Naboo".
The Databank does, however, note that the Starfighter does also appear in:
Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones. The support vessels for the Naboo Royal Starship in the opening scene are N-1s.
Star Wars: Episode VI Return of the Jedi. These show up as part of the ending montage (in the later edition after Episode 1 was released) and you see them very quickly fly overhead so sorry for the poor image.
Star Wars: The Clone Wars. They show up in a few episodes and the one below shows quite a few in the background of a hangar scene.
On another note Incredible Cross-sections of Star Wars, Episode I - The Phantom Menace has the following description which further emphasises the vehicle is only used by the Naboo.
The single pilot Naboo Royal N-1 Starfighter was developed by the Theed Palace Space Vessel Engineering Crops for the volunteer Royal Naboo Security Forces.
Found only on Naboo and rarely even there, the N-1, like the Queen's Royal Starship, uses mainly galactic standard components in a custom-built spaceframe that reflects the Naboo people's love of handcrafted, elegant shapes.
The Naboo being a peaceful people, the Space Fighter Corps is maintained as much through tradition as for military defense, and primarily serves as an honor guard for the Queen's Royal Starship.