I read a short story in the mid 1960's and now cannot remember the title. It was in an anthology I think.
The story began with space travelers, male and female. I think they were involved in a planetary colonization program, as they referred to many colonies. The key element was that they included in each colony crew an individual who did not connect well with other people, but he was invaluable for his ability to simply absorb information of every random type and make a valuable connection between disparate facts.
In this story, he was the only one who could solve the mystery of crew members dying unexpectedly and for unknown causes. He connected an obscure factoid about the side effect of a rare metal in certain life forms that was always fatal. He sounds the alarm to evacuate and all were saved.