I have had a good search and haven't been able to identify a story I read in the 80's or early 90's in a Russian sci-fi anthology. I'm pretty sure it was a translation from English. It is NOT "The Microcosmic God", though there is a similarity.
A policeman investigates an impenetrable dome that has suddenly encased a scientific laboratory. Everyone inside seems to have suffocated. Eventually the story reveals that a scientist (or maybe two scientists) undertook an experiment. They launched a satellite containing a mini solar system into space. Over time, a mini civilisation evolved in this micro world orbiting earth. Being small, they live, think and evolve much faster than humans. The scientist(s) become worried about the tiny world out-evolving earth and humans. The scientist(s) decide to end the experiment and fire off a rocket that should destroy the micro world. While it only takes a few hours for the rocket to reach the micro world, that is days in the time of the microworld. The microcivilization manages to deflect/defend the rocket strike. They respond with a weapon of their own, which targets the source of the rocket and covers the area in an impenetrable dome. Having figured it out, the policeman decides to not tell anyone.