This is a short story that I read in one of those many magazines that I was reading in the mid-to-late 1980s. It was most likely published between 1960 and 1985, but I'm not 100% certain.
One scene of the story (I think near the beginning) features a man (the main character?) eating a meal served on an airplane. The narration remarks about the mess of the tin foil and cardboard packaging in which it comes, noting that the appearance of a new bacteria or fungus that eats plastics and synthetic rubbers had made it impossible to use plastic for packaging any more. (Don't ask how it was possible to keep jetliners running; it may have mentioned that the plane was an older-style propeller plane made entirely of wood and metal, but I don't specifically recall this.)
I don't think that the story was specifically about the impact of the loss of plastic, but I feel like the side effects came up at other points in the story. I can't remember the specifics of these other mentions, though.
The closest I've been able to find in my searches is Michael Crichton's Andromeda Strain (definitely not it) and a 1971 novel called Mutant 59: The Plastic Eaters. Per ISFDB, it doesn't look like excerpts of this were printed in any magazines, and the reviews of this novel make it sound like a disaster movie plot that doesn't sound right. I don't think that's it, either.