Fair warning - may contain spoilers!
This was the title of the question when I originally posted this response.
What is the difference between a male Moclan and female Moclan?
Sociologically speaking, there's quite a bit of difference.
On the male-centric Moclan homeworld (Moclus), it appears that the majority of male Moclans live in cities heavily polluted by industry. One of their primary industries is designing and producing heavy weaponry for spacecraft. This makes them desirable members of the
Federation Planetary Union and the Moclan are not shy about threatening to withhold upgraded weapons if they don't get their way.
The first adult female Moclan we meet is a self-imposed outcast named Heveena. She writes books and poetry and is considered one of the greatest writers in Moclan history. However, she writes under a pseudonym (Gondus Elden) so as to avoid imprisonment and possible lawfully mandated surgical
In season 2 we are introduced to a secret society of female Moclans that left the homeworld and founded a colony of refuge hidden in a nebula. There is an 'underground railroad' that transports young female Moclans there so they can grow up as females. They live a peaceful existence and couldn't hope to defend their colony against a full scale male Moclan invasion force although they do appear to have some loosely organized defensive forces.
So ideologically speaking, Moclan men are from Moclus, Moclan women are from a planet orbiting a K-type star in a Class 6 nebula¹.
¹ In the spirit of the Orville, this is just a cheap joke based on Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus written by American author and relationship counselor John Gray.