This is probably Ben Bova's Colony.
To quote this review:
In the year 2028, a corporation-owned, space-station colony, Island One, circles in orbit around the moon. Downside, on Earth, the formation of the World Government, twenty years earlier, saved the planet from destruction through all-out war. But now their tenuous control of the planet is slipping, no thanks to the greedy corporations who have developed weather-modification technologies to sabotage the economies of already struggling countries, making them easier to overthrow by the revolutionary groups who are cropping up like weeds. David Adams, the first "test tube" biologically enhanced baby, born and bred on Island One, is now a man and ready to leave the colony to embark on a new adventure on Earth. He instead finds himself in the hands of the People's Revolutionary Underground (the PRU), and a sometimes ally, sometimes enemy of its beautiful Arab princess leader Scheherazade. Now he must choose whether to help the revolutionaries or protect his home of Island One.
Found with a search for science fiction novel ecological disaster scheherazade