Enterprise NX-01 uses phase and plasma cannons as well as torpedoes. NCC-1031 also used cannons throughout the series, until Such Sweet Sorrow part II. In fact at the Battle of the Binary Stars, both Federation and Klingon fleets were using cannons.
While Memory-Alpha states the Discovery has phaser banks they never seem to be used.
However in Such Sweet Sorrow part II NCC-1701 was clearly using her phasers (photo):
When did Starfleet begin using phaser banks as a primary weapon?