According to the creators of the game, it sits between Season 11 and Season 12.
Q. And do you have to pick a point where it fits in the canon and things like that?
Ian Hambleton: Yeah, we got asked this the other day. I think it fits post-the-last-series. This is almost existing between the two series [series 11 and series 12], basically.
Russell Harding: And the showrunners have always said about it being in ‘the inbetween’.
Doctor Who: The Edge Of Time interview – VR team talk Jodie Whittaker, Weeping Angels and more
Interestingly the game's producer Kiron Ramdewar was much more cagey. It's described by him as a "standalone episode" that doesn't directly tie-in to the show.
Q: So does this tie into the new season of the show at all?
So we're working with the BBC on this and then obviously, like I said, Jodie's done all the voice work for it and I would kind of see it as its own standalone episode almost, so while it doesn't directly tie-in with the latest season [season 12], it's set within the same universe and world and the dots that Jodie's in at the moment
Doctor Who: The Edge Of Time - Gameplay Interview