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This may depend on the "version", but one of the greatest legendary blades known is Excalibur, the sword of King Arthur. Contrary to popular misconception, Excalibur is not the sword Arthur pulled from the stone, but the one he got after that sword was broken; he received the sword and magical scabbard from the Lady in the Lake. But beyond that, I know little of the sword's origin.

Are there any stories that speak to this sword's origin, who forged it, and [aside from a never dulling edge which can cut through anything] what the blade’s powers are?

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    This question is not about science fiction or fantasy, but rather about mythology, which puts it off-topic here unless you want to relate it to a specific work – Valorum Oct 19 '19 at 5:19
  • This is one for mythology.stackexchange.com, where they have a tag for just this subject. – Chenmunka Oct 19 '19 at 8:36
  • according to Monty Python and the Holy Grail, Excalibur was indeed the sword that was pulled from the lake :D – NKCampbell Oct 19 '19 at 14:23
  • How can this or any other Arthurian question be a question for mythology.stackexchange.com? Arthur is a character in various medieval histories and pseudo histories, alleged to have been a real historical person by those histories or pseudo-histories. Arthur is also a character in various medieval romances, which are works of fiction loosely set, in his case, in the era when Arthur is supposed to have lived I have never read about Arthur in any work of religious mythology, like for example, the Bible or the Koran. – M. A. Golding Oct 19 '19 at 15:59
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The oldest source I am aware of that mentions the forging of Arthur's sword is Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, a Latin pseudo-history of the British isles composed around 1136. A complete Modern English translation may be found here, which is the source of the quotes below.

Also Arthur himself, having put on a coat of mail suitable to the grandeur of so powerful a king, placed a golden helmet upon his head, on which was engraved the figure of a dragon; and on his shoulders his shield called Priwen; upon which the picture of the blessed Mary, mother of God, was painted, in order to put him frequently in mind of her. Then girding on his Caliburn, which was an excellent sword made in the isle of Avallon, he graced his right hand with his lance, named Ron, which was hard, broad, and fit for slaughter.

Here, Arthur's sword is identified as "Caliburnus" in the original Latin. Although that name was sometimes assigned to the Sword in the Stone (when the two weapons are taken to be different), the Historia predates the earliest known reference to the Sword in the Stone tale, which is not known to have appeared until around the end of the twelfth century. Moreover, the name Caliburnus is a Latinization of the Old Welsh Caledfwlch (or perhaps the later Cornish cognate Calesvol or a similar cognate from another insular Celtic language), the oldest attested name for Arthur's magic sword. The subsequent development in Old and Middle French to Excalibur is well documented, including the clearly intermediate form Caliburc from the Estoire des Engleis, which probably dates to slightly after Monmouth's Historia. (Wikipedia has a reasonable summary of the development of the name.)

So According to Geoffrey, the sword was forged on the mystical isle of Avalon, but no further details are provided, and the sword itself is not a major part of the story—except insofar as it was Arthur's primary weapon.

... neither did he give over the fury of his assault until he had, with his Caliburn alone, killed four hundred and seventy men.

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