Apparently Deathwatch/Children of the Watch Mandalorians follow the creed of always wearing the helmet all the time- this is referenced to in the third episode of season 2 "Chapter 11: The Heiress" where Bo-Katan Kryze, and two other mandalorians remove their helmets, much to Din Djarin's shock. Its mentioned that the Watch are religious zealots. Later on, its hinted that they follow a very traditionalist aspect of things. They do seem to be accepting later on of the other, less traditionalist mandalorians, so this is very much a tradition of that group of mandalorians, rather than a universal one. From what the Armorer says - it feels like its a reaction to the fall of mandalore and mandalorian culture.
The Deathwatch apparently ended up being destroyed due to inflighting "Death Watch exists no longer. It shattered into many warring factions" - and I suspect this is very much a reaction to that.
So some mandalorians, who follow the specific creed adopted by the Children of the watch do not remove their helmets. As per other media, other factions of Mandalorians, including pre-purge deathwatch may not. The 'unified' force that took Mandalore seems to follow whichever tradition their original faction did, whether it be the mandalorians who had survived onworld, Bo Katan's nightowls or the children of the watch
Least in the strict interpretation of the creed that the children of the watch Din follows, removal of the helmet's considered disgraceful, and requires him to redeem himself.
Interestingly - Bo Katan's told to remove her helmet by the armorer - and she's told "You walk two worlds" - and there's no disgrace there.
Since she never removes her helmet in the covert - this very much seems a tradition only of the night watch.
I think there’s a certain amount of context. Or as Obi Wan would say: “From a certain point of view.”
The Paz Vizsla (aka: Heavy Infantry Mandalorian) is questioning the protagonist’s (Din Djarin) courage:
“Our world was shattered by the Empire with whom this coward shares tables.”
Then he tries to remove the protagonist’s helmet, which triggers the fight. Disrespect was meant and given out by that action. The helmet is clearly important and removal of it was meant to be symbolic.
“When one chooses to walk the way of the Mandalore, you are both hunter and prey.”
There’s a certain reputation to that armour, and considering the Empire apparently has them in hiding, even after they are gone, there’s obviously a certain risk to being seen as a Mandalorian.
“How can one be a coward if one chooses this way of life?”
Kinda backs it up. There’s a risk to being seen as a Mandalorian.
“Have you ever removed your helmet?”
In previous context — is almost like saying, “Have you ever denied being a Mandalorian?”
Considering Paz’s distaste for hiding this makes sense:
“Has it ever been removed by others?”
Would presumably suggest defeat.
I suspect this doesn’t mean they live in their helmets — and considering the response “This is the way…” and how that immediately stopped the fight — I suspect there was some cultural and religious implications there.
I’m also pretty sure the protagonist will lose his helmet at some point…
While I’ve yet to watch the episode in question, this recap on io9 seems to confirm that the protagonist does remove his helmet to eat:
“Mando hasn’t taken off his helmet in front of people since he was a kid, but (as many people wondered after the comments last week) he does take it off to eat if he’s alone.”
Din Djarin does remove his helmet later on - in the episode Chapter 15: The Believer, when infiltrating an imperial remnant base. It obviously causes him pain and discomfort. He also removes it in the season finale (By choice, and much more happily). This causes him to be rejected by the Tribe/Covert, and he's told he needs to find the living waters of mandalore
When Bo Katan's temporarily taken the creed, and she's on a hunting party to retrieve a foundling carried away by a very large bird-like creature, they camp for the night, and has to ask "How do you eat when other people are around" - and is told they just wander off and do so.
So, from a certain point of view, you don't remove your helmet in the presence of other people.