They are part of the same universe, but note that Foundation and Earth is set long after "Victory Unintentional".
The three robots — ZZ One, ZZ Two, and ZZ Three — were built by the United States Robots and Mechanical Men Corporation, the employer of Dr. Susan Calvin featuring in other stories. So this ties them to the Robot-series and through that, to the Foundation-series.
Foundation and Earth is set roughly 20,000 years after The Caves of Steel, which is set in the 50th century AD. We have no date nor chronology for "Victory Unintentional", but humans seem to have only recently developed force fields good enough to travel through space. Quite likely they haven't left the solar system yet, which puts the story quite some time before The Caves of Steel.
Also, Earth is quite hard to find in Foundation and Earth, as is the entire solar system. This leads us to the conclusion that either the Jovians have perished in the 20 millennia that have passed (perhaps their "eternal peace" wasn't as eternal as promised, and they lost), or that they never left Jupiter and were forgotten like Earth was.
Isaac Asimov himself disavows the notion of complete consistency.
The fourteen books [...] offer a kind of history of the future, which is, perhaps, not completely consistent, since I did not plan consistency to begin with.
Prelude to Foundation by Isaac Asimov, "Author's Note" (preface).