There is no evidence that Captain Marvel can teleport around the universe, in fact it is highly likely that she can't do this. For example, if she could, she could have just appeared at the meeting with Nat at the start of Avengers: Endgame on Earth rather than through the comms and it wouldn't have been highly unlikely she'd return for a while.
Carol Danvers: Listen, fur-face, I’m covering a lot of territory out here. The things that have been happening on Earth have been happening everywhere else. On thousands of planets. You might not see me for a long time.
Instead to move as quickly as she can she can already fly super quickly as we see at the end of Captain Marvel when she leaves Earth with the Skrulls by flying alongside the ship.
She also has access to the jump ports that we see are spread throughout the universe, first shown in Guardians of the Galaxy. We get a good look at these in Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 when Rocket, Yondu and Kraglin jump to Ego.
Lastly, you are somewhat mistaken that things happen instantly. There is a cut scene from Carol appearing at the Benatar and getting back to Earth but that doesn't mean it happened instantly. It just cuts out the travel time because it isn't really relevant or needed to be seen.