I'd strongly suspect the answer is NO.
Although I can't quote canon specifically to the contrary, there is, I think, enough circumstantial evidence to the contrary:
- In Episode VI, Vader/Anakin says "Luke, help me take this mask off." Luke replies: "But you'll die." Anakin's reply of "nothing can stop that now" indicates that he would die either way.
- In Episode III, we see Anakin fried to a crisp and missing most of his limbs. The armour not only holds him together but apparently acts as a respirator. Though you'd think a galaxy spanning KIII civilisation could synthesise a couple lungs for their new dark lord!
- In Episode IIIb we see that Vader requires special medical baths. Presumably because he can't take his armour off.
If he dìd take off his armour, he'd still have to wear entirely concealing clothing to cover up the scarred head & face, the mechanical arm, the mechanical hand and the two mechanical legs. He'd appear as out of place as a Secret Service agent trying to act natural! And as for the "life support elements", the helmet itself seems to be integral with the life support system. The scene in III where the upper half of the helmet is placed clearly shows that the lower half of the helmet is some kind respiratory apparatus the removal of which will cause his death.