This is "The Screwfly Solution" (1977) by James Tiptree Jr.
Men start killing their wives, lovers, etc. The protagonist has a husband and daughter, and has a biology background. They recognize some of the danger, and her husband goes to live in the shed away from the women. One day her daughter goes to visit her husband (despite warnings from the protagonist) and he kills the daughter. At this point, realizing that even her husband has become dangerous to her, the protagonist runs away.
Meanwhile, around the world women are being killed. An apocalyptic belief (the "Sons of Adam") arises that somehow a new world will be born when all women are dead, and they start to be hunted down, even as they try to flee. (There is a description of a group of women, shrouded from head to foot, trying to get on a plane to escape, but they are set upon by the men and killed.)
The protagonist flees to a small northern (Canadian) town, putting together clues that indicate that the disease may be extraterrestrial based on its dispersion pattern in the global atmospheric system. An old man shows signs of recognizing her as a woman, so she takes camping gear and heads into the bush.
One day she observes a presence hovering in the air, apparently taking samples, and she comments on the new inheritors of Earth cleaning it up for occupation.
The title is based on a musing of the protagonist on a method for dealing with screwflies where a genetic change was introduced that caused males to attempt to mate with the head of the females.