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In The Two Towers it reads:

Shelob was gone; and whether she lay long in her lair nursing her malice and misery, and in the slow years of darkness healed herself from within, rebuilding her clustered eyes, until with hunger like death she spun once more her dreadful snares in the glens of the Mountains of Shadow, this tale does not tell.

The Two Towers -- J.R.R. Tolkien -- chapter X, The Choices of Samwise Gamgee

The LOTR Wiki says it's unclear what happened to Shelob after Sam wounded her so severely, but I am inherently mistrustful of the accuracy of series Wikis. I don't have The Silmarillion so I thought I would ask here: Did Shelob die? Is there any canon information regarding Shelob's ultimate fate?

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The only canon information regarding Shelob's fate is the passage you cited in The Two Towers, namely “this tale does not tell”. That, and we know that after the fight, as Sam enters Mordor with the Ring, “still at a distance he heard the bubbling of Shelob in her misery” with his sharpened hearing, so she did not die immediately of her wounds.

The Silmarillion tells of events up to the end of the Third Age. The events of The Lord of the Rings are summarized in a few pages, as the conclusion of the story of the rings of power. You will find a lot of background to The Lord of the Rings, but little if anything new about what happens during and after LOTR. Shelob is not mentioned in the story (a note mentions her as the last child of Ungoliant).

Af far as I know, Tolkien had no draft or plans involving the fate of Shelob. But she belongs to the past. Maybe she withers and dies, maybe she is one of the monsters of old who will be killed by heroes of the Fourth Age, but Tolkien never told this story.

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    Actually, I'm pretty sure that Shelob's still alive somewhere down in South America. Those big ol' bird-eating spiders? Those are her great-grandkids. – Omegacron Jan 29 '15 at 20:41
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    @Omegacron Really? I thought Shelob had a sex change plus name change to Aragog and had a starring role in the Harry Potter series. – Deepak Jul 6 '15 at 1:04
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I have always read that passage as the most likely case being that Shelob survived. After all, it does go into a lot of detail as to how she might survive:

she lay long in her lair nursing her malice and misery, and in the slow years of darkness healed herself from within, rebuilding her clustered eyes, until with hunger like death she spun once more her dreadful snares in the glens of the Mountains of Shadow.

However this is never addressed canonically. As Tolkien himself notes, whether she survived "this tale does not tell" nor, apparently, any of his others.

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    This reminds me of the standard 1950's horror endings. "And the monster is dead. OR IS IT?" It's entirely reasonable leave some loose ends even with omniscient narrators in a large story like this. – Patrick Hughes Sep 2 '12 at 19:48

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