In any incarnation where Peter's webs are non-organic, he basically engineers both the web formula, and the delivery system (the web shooters) that he can use to weaponize it. Most data on it says the webbing is in a "fluid" state that, when exposed to air, the "long chain polymer" then turns solid, but can be applied in differing shapes. Several sources site that the base webbing is very strong, elastic, and has adhesive qualities, but "evaporates", "dissolves" or "breaks down" after about 2 hours. These are the properties of the basic type of webbing; Peter has modified the formula for various effects, from making it stronger, to coagulating, to incendiary, etc.
To simplify, the answer should focus on the base formula. So the main points to take would be:
- It's a polymer of some sort, possibly long chain
- It starts off, at least, in a liquid, fluid or gelatinous form
- It has strong adhesive capabilities
- It's extremely strong (often compare favorably to steel) in web form
- It breaks down after a certain amount of time.
The "base formula" may vary from version to version; the 1980s Spider-Man cartoon stated that his web fluid is "rubber based" (explaining how covering himself in it insulated him from a 1,000,000 volt electrical shock) and a scientist would later examine it and say it was "man made", while in the 1990s' Spider-Man: The Animated Series Peter himself theorized that the spider that bit him "passed along an instinctive knowledge of how to create this sticky silk," while in The Amazing Spider-Man film, Oscorp already had an adhesive formula based on the properties of natural spider silk that Peter improved upon. Most all seemed to have the above mentioned factors; the eventual "breaking down" of the webbing is key as it keeps the city clean, and is a commonality with organic spider webs.
There have been a few videos theorizing what the webbing could be made of:
and another one here...
Both provide strong arguments for their respective theories.
I was curious, however, if there was any in canon formula that would be known, from any media version?