I can't remember whether this was a novel, a short story, or a series of two or three stories. It's been decades since I read it, or them, and I can remember only fragments.
There's a scene on a spaceship, in which an older man is finally dying of some awful disease. The symptoms are liver-spots on his hands, and a smell in the air, maybe of camphor. I can recall the line "a mutant bacteriophage, vicious beyond imagination", and details about how the disease had wiped out all human life on earth.
Later, or possibly in a subsequent story, a robot civilisation begins to explore the universe. It transpires that the seed of their civilisation was a robot aboard the ship in the first story, and that before the last human died, she left maps or star charts or some other information that led the robots to Earth.
When the robots arrive on earth, I remember on of them finding the rusted remains of a bulldozer, believes it to be their ancestor. Eventually they find a statue, or something similar, a monument to the death of humanity. On the statue is written text that contains the line "and now man dies".
No luck searching the internet for this story, so I came here.