This sounds like it could be one of Philip K. Dick's stories.
He re-used themes quite often and it can be hard to keep track. The idea of adults playing with dolls in complex set ups is central to The Days of Perky Pat.
Unusually, I was able to lay my hands on my copy pretty easily. The adults in the story are supported by air drops of supplies after some radiation event. They obsess over their doll house arrangements (called layouts) for Perky Pat (the doll). The adults compete to have the best layout. There are two children who despise how the adults spend their time and go hunting with a home made knife. They pass up the opportunity to kill a do-cat (dog/cat/mutant thing) and find a kill a rabbit.
The Wikipedia page should give a publication history. I read it in volume 4 of the collected stories of Philip K. Dick, conveniently called "The Days of Perky Pat". That probably helped me find it on the shelf.
DavidW has mentioned that you can read the story online here.