I read a short story where astronauts became infected with something that made them barf up their insides and regrow them, like sea cucumbers. In the end, this is how one of the characters learns that his wife cheated on him; she slept with someone who had been infected, became infected herself, and yakked her guts up when her husband surprised her. I think this was on the old Sci Fi Channel website, but google and archive.org were no help. I googled "sci-fi story sea cucumber," but didn't get what I was looking for.
Pretty sure it's not Mindbridge, either.