Though the details are sparse, could you be thinking of one of the books from the Animorphs series?
It was definitely about a group of kids...
The main series focuses on a group of human children/teens with powers that allow them to "morph" (transform) into animals (hence Ani-morph) fighting an evil race of aliens called the Yeerk, which are essentially mind-controlling slug creatures.
The only part I specifically remember is them encountering a centaur-like creature, and him reading their minds and being offended maybe?
There are also good aliens called Andalites. They are blue centaur-like creatures that can communicate via "thought-speak". When the teens first meet the Andalite character Aximili-Esgarrouth-Isthill (or his nickname "Ax"), he is shocked that they were given the morphing power by another Andalite because it is forbidden by law in Andalite society to give advanced technology to other species.
They definitely had some sort of magic stone or gemstone, and maybe they were trying to get more?
The morphing power is granted by an Andalite technology called the "Escafil device", a small blue cube. It is thought to be destroyed at one point in the series, though the main characters are able to recover it later.
...on a weird planet...
There are many books in the Animorphs series (over 50), and it's been a long time since I read them, but it is entirely possible they visit an alien planet at one point.