I read about this in a book about classic horror films in elementary school, around 1987 to 1991, in Ashland, KY. The main character is a scientist who is developing an artificial heart. To prove his invention, he implants the heart in himself. Later, he becomes a murderer (I think with all implication that having an artificial heart took away his human compassion), and I think he initially gets away with it because the lie detector showed him telling the truth (since his pulse was constant due to the artificial heart). I don't remember if the book said how it ended.
The stills reproduced in the book were in black and white, but I don't know if the films themselves were. Artificial hearts were a real thing by that time (the first one implanted in 1982), but I'm pretty sure it was science fiction at the time the film came out. I don't remember the book looking horribly old, but I know we didn't get a lot of new books, being a private Catholic school in a small town of largely Baptists. I might be conflating books, but I remember two of the other films being referenced were The Blob and The Tingler.