Could this be Suite Mentale by Randall Garrett, published in Future Science Fiction issue 30 in 1956? The story is drafted as for the movements of a piece of classical music (overture, nocturne etc.)
This story opens with a neurosurgeon operating on a man who has been shot through the head, effectively lobotomizing him, his condition is discussed with a few men "in suits and hats" (i.e. FBI men) who are interested in the case because the shot man is a well known scientist (Paul Wendell) working on the problem of "psionics".
The story eventuates switching between external narrative of the effects of the shot with the (USA) president involved and an internal narrative from/about Wendell, showing that inside his brain he is still active, even if externally he is completely handicapped with no brain activity beyond that which keeps him alive. It turns out at the instant of the shot, they found Wendell (near death) and 8 insane men:
"That's right," said the big FBI man. "We went into his apartment an instant too late. We found eight madmen and a near-corpse. We're not sure what happened, and we're not sure we want to know. Anything that can drive eight reasonably stable men off the deep end in less than an hour is nothing to meddle around with."
"I wonder what went wrong?" asked the Secretary of no one in particular.
Wendell himself becomes insane thinking about what went wrong:
When he suddenly realized, with crashing finality, where he was and what had happened to him, Paul Wendell went violently insane. Or he would have, if he could have become violent.
He then recovers and knows what went wrong:
And finally, at long last, he knew with certainty where his calculations had gone astray. He knew positively why eight men had gone insane.
Then he went again in search of other minds, and this time he knew he would not bounce.
The ending is quite good so I won't reveal it here, though foreshadowed, suffice to say the other 8 recover and are improved.