Take everything I say below with a grain of salt, it's been roughly 5 years (2013-2016?) since I read the series, so I've probably got some of the details wrong.
I don't know how old the book series is, nor any of the covers' appearances or anything about the title, and I don't think I finished the whole series either. The setting is in some fantasy world, so not based on the real world, past or present. The main character is a boy who becomes newly apprenticed to some kind of wizard or magician. The magician is supposed to be a bad guy, but for some reason which I can't remember, the boy was forced to become his apprentice. At some point, maybe after his apprenticeship is over, the boy and his master get into a fight, and the boy, who's some kind of magical prodigy, is able to predict what spells his opponent is going to try by looking at the colors of the magical aura around his opponent. Then, he's able to counter those spells appropriately with his own. I think at some point, the boy performs some type of healing magic, which surprises his friends because they weren't aware he got so powerful. The magical auras in this world around different people are different colors depending on what spells are being/are about to be performed. The more powerful one is in magical terms, the more adept one is at seeing colors around other people and countering their spells.
The boy's name may have started with a "C".
From my search results and comments/answers below, I am fairly sure it is none of the following books/book series:
- The Stormlight Archive
- Sufficiently Advanced Magic
- The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel
- The Wheel of Time
- The Demon Cycle
- The Seventh Tower
- Bartimaeus Trilogy
- Myth Adventures
- Changeling & Madwand duology
- The Dragon Nimbus