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At the end of the tragic tale of Túrin Turambar, as told in The Silmarillion, Túrin goes alone to the high point of Cabed-en-Aras above the river Teiglin, and there calls to his sword Gurthang.

There he drew forth his sword, that now alone remained to him of all his possessions, and he said, 'Hail Gurthang! No lord or loyalty dost thou know, save the hand that weildeth thee. From no blood wilt thou shrink. Wilt thou therefore take Túrin Turambar, wilt thou slay me swiftly?'

And from the blade rang a cold voice in answer: 'Yea, I will drink thy blood gladly, that so I may forget the blood of Beleg my master, and of Brandir slain unjustly. I will slay thee swiftly.'

Then Túrin set the hilts upon the ground, and cast himself upon the point of Gurthang, and the black blade took his life.

...

Then they lifted up Túrin, and found that Gurthang had broken asunder.

Nowhere else in the legendarium, as far as I know, does a sword speak, nor is any explanation offered for how Gurthang did so.

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You have to remember the literary genre. Quenta Silmarillion is presented as a collection of legends and stories, collected many years after the events concerned. It is not a novel, and is not written as one. It is the legends and stories of the Elves, though also containing accounts of some of the notable Atani, such as Túrin. As such, only those stories known to the Elves of Middle-earth are told. For example, we are told little of what passed in Valinor after the exile of the Noldor, nor do we know the final fate of Maglor.

How then, can we know the details of the passing of Túrin and Gurthang, since they were alone at the time? We can't, of course. The detail of the sword speaking is a literary flourish, added as the story passed down the generations, because it seemed fitting. A talking sword taking the life of its owner ("master of doom by doom mastered") is properly the stuff of legends, and so it is included in this legend.

What makes this legendary is not the likelihood or otherwise of the tale, but the way it is told, the high remote language, and the overall structure of the story. The plot of The Lord of the Rings is the stuff of legends, but that novel is not itself legendary in style. The dialogue is natural; the characters are shown intimately. The reader is made to feel close to the tale. The Silmarillion has a very different feel to it. The events happened long ago, in a different Age of the world, in fact, in a world which in many ways no longer exists, for it has changed so much in the interim.

To think that Gurthang actually spoke is to make a mistake in the understanding of literary genre; the same mistake that people make when they think Genesis says the world was created in 144 hours.

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    "Farewell, friend. I was a thousand times more evil than thou!" StormBringer's final words to Elric as they usher in the new Age of Balance. Magical swords, particularly of the doom-dealing variety getting the last word is a literary trope. A way of describing and closing a chapter of a legendary event or tragic tale. – Thaddeus Howze Oct 6 '12 at 21:36
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    I disagree. I think the sword did speak, however not with sound, but directly by mental communication. It is said by Melian that Eol put some of its will in the two black swords, so the sword could "speak", exactly as the One Ring did. – user8252 Oct 7 '12 at 13:43
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    @ALS. Tolkien's world includes a lot of ambiguity, enigma, and mystery. I'd forgotten about Eol's will. It's certainly a thought. – TRiG Oct 7 '12 at 21:51
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    I've upvoted the question but downvoted this answer. There's no sources at all and you don't even really answer the question. "It's a literary flourish" - according to whom? Where are similar flourishes in other parts Tolkien's work or in similar real-world works, e.g. the eddas or sagas? Are there any statements by folklorists or historians or Tolkien that these are not to be taken literally? – user1030 Oct 8 '12 at 10:42
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    For example, if you read Norse poetry it is full of kennings, which are literary flourishes, but also to be interpreted literally. You can refer to Thor as mög-fellandi mellu and that's a literary flourish, but he also did actually kill a lot of giants. – user1030 Oct 8 '12 at 10:57

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