As stated in the title, does any information exist; I haven't been able to find out if Aragorn served in Gondor and Rohan as Thorongil in Peter Jackson's film universe (Jacksonverse). Did he, for example, help defeat the Corsairs of Umbar?
There are hints that he served in Rohan1
On the road to Helm's Deep while having dinner with Éowyn, she mentions something Théoden had told her:
My uncle told me a strange thing. He
said that you rode to war with Thengel,
my grandfather. But he must be mistaken.
King Théoden has a good memory. He was
only a small child at the time.
This passage seems to hint that Thorongil had existed in the movies, at least in some form. Given that in the books Aragorn served under Thengel prior to coming to Gondor's aid, I think it would be quite simple to suggest that Aragorn had indeed helped destroy the fleet at Umbar with the Gondorians.
1 As stated by @lfurini, this scene only takes place in the extended edition of The Two Towers
It's only hinted at, but I think yes.
In addition to Edlothiad's answer, Aragorn tells Boromir he's seen Minas Tirith "long ago."
Boromir: I will find no rest here. I heard her voice inside my head. She spoke of my father and the fall of Gondor. She said to me “Even now there is hope left.” But I cannot see it. It is long since we had any hope. My father is a noble man, but his rule is failing. And now our people lose faith. He looks to me to make things right and I would do it. I would see the glory of Gondor restored. Have you ever seen it Aragorn? The White tower of Ecthelion, glimmering like a spike of pearl and silver. Its banners caught high in the morning breeze. Have you ever been called home by the clear ringing of silver trumpets? (he turns towards Aragorn)
Aragorn: I have seen the White City, long ago.
Boromir: One day, our paths will lead us there. And the tower guards shall take up the call: “The Lords of Gondor have returned!”
In the books at least, the only time Aragorn visited Gondor was during his adventures as Thorongil. So that makes two lines of dialogue that correspond with his biography in the books.
I guess it's possible that in the movie universe Aragorn rode to war with Thengel under the name "Pinky" and visited Minas Tirith for a raging keg party. But given the level of detail and fidelity to Tolkien's works generally displayed in the original trilogy, I don't see any reason to believe that, except when explicitly contradicted, everything true of Aragorn's biography in the books is also true in the movies. It certainly seems like the writers went out of their way to make nods to Aragorn's backstory.
To put it another way, officially there's no answer, but I think there's pretty strong indication that if you got Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens or Peter Jackson on the phone and asked if the Thorongil adventures happened to their movie's Aragorn, they'd say "yeah."