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There are several kings, queens, princes, etc. in the magical realm of Once Upon a Time, but I’m having trouble keeping them straight. Is there a hierarchy, or are there neighboring kingdoms & principalities?

Who are the various rulers?

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The Enchanted Forest world

The Enchanted Forest is divided into kingdoms.

The ones that are listed during the series are:

  • Evil Queen's kingdom (previously ruled by King Leopold and Eva, i.e., Snow White's parents)
  • King George's kingdom (after inherited by Snow White and Prince Charming, as their kingdom)
  • King Midas' kingdom (daughter: Princess Abigail, who was supposed to marry Prince Charming)
  • King Xavier's kingdom (the son, Prince Henry, is the Evil Queen's father, married to Cora)
  • Cinderella and Prince Thomas kingdom (appears in 1st season)
  • Princess Aurora and Prince Philip kingdom (appears in 2nd season)
  • Prince Eric's kingdom (Ariel's true love, ruled previously by his parents; appears in 3rd season)
  • Rapunzel's kingdom (ruled by her parents, appears in 3rd season)
  • Elsa's kingdom (named Arendelle, as in Disney's Frozen)

Moreover, Sir Maurice (i.e., Belle's father) owns a castle and speaks about "their kingdom", though it is not clear if he is a prince/king too (still, the fact that he is named as Sir does not qualify him as a prince).

Furthermore, Maleficent owns the Forbidden Fortress located in the Enchanted Forest.

Other worlds

Our world is called Land without magic, without any specific ruler. Cited places are:

  • Storybrooke
  • England (Alice and Wendy Darling are from here)
  • New York
  • Boston

Viktor Frankenstein lives in the Land without color (here, all the scenes and characters are in black and white). This is another world with respect to the Enchanted forest, in fact Frankenstein needed the Mad Hatter's hat to travel from here to the Enchanted Forest to follow Rumplestiltskin and find a new magical heart for his brother. The known inhabitants are the Frankenstein family and Igor. No ruler is known from here.

In Once upon a time in Wonderland others appear:

  • Agrabah: ruled by Jafar's father, the Sultan
  • Wonderland: ruled by the Red Queen. In fact, this was present in the original Once upon a time plot

Worlds that are cited in the following seasons:

  • Season 2 and 3: Neverland is cited, too. Here, Peter Pan is in charge (in fact, he is deciding who comes to and leaves the island)
  • Season 5: Camelot is a land in which King Arthur reigns
  • Season 5: the Underworld is ruled by Hades

Oz is a not-well-commented scenario. It seems that here Zelena (i.e., the Wicked Witch) rules somehow, with a reign of terror.

  • I think Wonderland and Agrabah were in a different world than the Enchanted Forest, they seemed to need portals to reach those – Izkata Jul 29 '14 at 11:42
  • This is why I did not enlisted them in the same list of "Enchanted Forest" kingdoms. I would define them other worlds, as it can be the Enchanted Forest, the Land without magic (i.e., our world), Wonderland, Neverland – Eleanore Jul 29 '14 at 13:16
  • Under “Other Worlds”, there’s also Victorian and Edwardian England where Alice and Wendy come from… ☺ (But the rulers are not shown so don’t go adding them to the answer.) – J. C. Salomon Jul 30 '14 at 0:57
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    @Eleanore Time travel is supposed to be impossible, so I understood Alice to be from a different world that looks like ours. Wendy on the other hand was definitely from our world, given she knew Baelfire – Izkata Jul 30 '14 at 11:00
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    Arendelle would seem to be in the same world as the Enchanted Forest. I believe at some point it was indicated that one can travel between the two by ship. – Adamant Apr 7 '16 at 7:31
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There are neighboring kingdoms & principalities.

Case in point: The betrothal between King Midas' daughter Princess Abigail and Charming was a political alliance between two neighboring kingdoms.

It helps to think of fairytale land as a fantasy equivalent to medieval-era Europe.

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