I don't remember much except for a few scenes and it's been bugging me for a few years, because I think it had a really interesting story line; I just don't remember it. It was a show I watched on TV as a kid, maybe 15 years ago, but the cartoon is probably older.
I looked at similar questions and I thought it might have been Zentrix, because some elements match, but the animation style does not match. I'm pretty sure it was 2D animated, more anime style?
What I think I remember from the plot is that there were others that were trying to get/destroy the robot. Maybe because of a prism, but I'm not sure about this. I believe there was also a girl the robot was protecting, but the girl was also very concerned about the robot.
I vividly remember this scene where the red robot was in a desert and was standing on a hill, probably fighting. Also a scene where they were in front of a cave in the sandy surrounding and the robot was fighting. Another scene I remember was inside in maybe a ship/building on a metal bridge.
From what I recall it wasn't a giant robot, more adult sized.