This story also has some strong similarities to Orson Scott Card's A Planet Called Treason, later revised and rereleased simply as Treason.
The premise of this novel is the banishment to the seemingly metal-poor planet Treason of a group of people who attempted to create rule by an intellectual elite. The novel centers on the descendants of these anti-democratic thinkers who remain imprisoned on the planet. Through the ages, these descendants have formed nations which warred and allied with one another to gain advantages over their rivals in the race to build a starship. Due to the metal-deficiency on Treason, nations are forced to obtain it through a system of barter using teleportation devices known as Ambassadors.
The protagonist of the book is Lanik Mueller, heir apparent to the Mueller family kingdom. The Muellers, through generations of eugenics, have the ability to heal at an accelerated speed and regrow body parts naturally. The dark side to the Mueller nation is that, in order to obtain iron and other metals, they trade organs and body parts, which are harvested from radical regeneratives ("rads"). Radical regeneratives are people whose bodies can't distinguish between health and injury, and so grow extra appendages as well as organs of the opposite sex; although this is a normal phase for most Muellers at the age of puberty, the bodies of radical regeneratives never outgrow it.
The Muellers regenerate freely, although they remove their own limbs and organs (largely of the radicals) to trade with the Ambassadors. The Schwartz people, descended from geologists, have gained a form of geokinesis which involves sinking into the rock, and Lanik learns that trick, eventually using it to destroy the Ambassadors in an attempt to create peace by removing the source of conflict between the tribes.
However, to my knowledge, there are no strange particles flying through the air, and there really isn't much of a plotline involving discovery of royalty in exile, although Lanik himself is such, and his clone brother (resulting from an attempt he made to kill himself where his body got confused and regrew an entire other person from the parts he chopped off) now sits on the Mueller throne, and one of the reveals is that the Illuders, descendents of a psychologist, have been using the power of illusion to replace leaders in the other tribes.