Was Scotty directly responsible for the Klingons eradicating the Tribbles on their home world, due to his actions of transporting them to the Klingon battle cruiser?
The Animated Series episode 'More Tribbles, More Troubles' indicates that Cyrano Jones sold Tribbles on a Klingon planet, leading to (as the Klingons call it) 'ecological sabotage'. This is the reason Klingons developed the Glommer as a Tribble predator, to handle the Tribble troubles.
DS9 'Trials and Tribble-ations' mentions that the Great Tribble Hunt was motivated by the Klingon believe that the Tribbles were an 'ecological menace'.
This could be interpreted as Cyrano Jones's actions being at least part of the cause for the Tribble eradication. As far as I can tell, there are no later canon references at all to Scotty's transporter 'joke', so I would say there is no canon indication for a causal relation there.