There is no in-universe confirmation of this. Likely, there never will be.
Seeing as Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings (2021) came after Doctor Strange (2016), and the Ancient One
perishes towards the end of Doctor Strange,
it is rather unlikely that we will see confirmation of this. As of January 2022, there is no MCU confirmation of the Ancient One knowing about Xu Wenwu.
There doesn't seem to be any reason for her to know
As Wong says in Doctor Strange:
WONG: While heroes like the Avengers protect the world from physical dangers, we sorcerers safeguard it against more mystical threats.
Doctor Strange (2016); emphasis added
Xu Wenwu's Rings were magic, sure, but he never attacked the Sanctums or Kamar-Taj (to our knowledge). He used them for worldly gain and to topple different regimes and world leaders, and if anything it made it more clear to threats like Dormammu and others that the Earth was protected. The sorcerers kept the Earth safe from mystical threats, and while the Rings did have magic, they didn't mess with the mystical safety of the Earth. Until,
the Rings sent out a signal to some other force and Wong became involved.
Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings takes place after the Blip, a five-year period during which 50% of Earth's population disappeared because of Thanos's snap. This included Steven Strange, who presumably became Sorcerer Supreme to replace the Ancient One after Doctor Strange. This caused Wong to become Sorcerer Supreme (and he retains his role post-Blip, as shown in Spider-Man: No Way Home (2021)) "on a technicality":
STRANGE: He got it on a technicality because I blipped for five years.
Spider-Man: No Way Home (2021)
At the end of Shang-Chi, Wong takes Katy and Shang-Chi to what is presumably the Sanctum in New York, where he explains that the Rings are emitting a signal of some sort that the sorcerers were able to detect and that possibly is being sent to some otherworldly being or race, but that this started only after Shang-Chi used the Rings for the first time.
WONG: The first time you used the rings, we felt it in Kamar-Taj.
Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings (2021); emphasis added
This shows that the sorcerers (and more specifically, Wong) are attentive to matters regarding the Rings after Shang-Chi is in possession of them because a possible mystic threat is involved. However, until the point that Shang-Chi used the Rings for the first time, a such signal had not been sent by the Rings.