I found this novel in English at my local library in the mid-1990's, but the book itself looked like it was from the 1950's or 60's. If I remember correctly, it had a picture of an astronaut in a space suit on the cover.
In the story, an American astronaut travels to an already-established Lunar colony and gets involved there in investigations into unexplained phenomena. The phenomena turn out to be aliens, and the protagonist is abducted while on an away mission and whisked away to an alien zoo. There, he discovers that the aliens have time travel and have been abducting humans from many different time periods to fill their zoo. He ends up working together with an ancient Roman soldier to escape.
Some particular specifics of the story that I remember:
The author goes into detail on space suit mechanics and configuration. Early in the story, the protagonist has a pharmacist install a narcotics dispensing system into his helmet, and this is portrayed as a normal practice and not at all shady or illicit.
The scene in which the protagonist meets the Roman soldier takes care to explore the language barrier. The protagonist's attempts to speak English to the soldier are rebuffed as barbarian talk. The protagonist then remembers that he speaks Spanish, which is a descendant of Latin, so he tries greeting the soldier in Spanish. This turns out to be close enough to the soldier's dialect for mutual intelligibility (and for the soldier to recognize the astronaut as a civilized person), and they are then able to make a plan to escape the alien zoo.
At some point in the story, the protagonist receives a major upgrade to his space suit (or perhaps a brand-new suit) that has improved visibility and flexibility.