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How come the Borg could not adapt to Species 8472? Voyager was able to create nano probes that could destroy Species 8472 and yet the Borg couldn't figure that out? Why?

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    Of course they could figure that out, but they didn't want to destroy them. They wanted to assimilate them. – DampeS8N Mar 21 '11 at 2:27
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From Memory Alpha:

[T]he Borg learned about different species solely by means of assimilation; they were unable to understand or adapt to Species 8472's technology. This organically based technology was more than a match for Borg defenses. Species 8472's vessels were nearly impervious to all types of conventional weaponry, while their weapons were able to penetrate Borg shields with ease.

The issue is that the Borg didn't know a solution to how to assimilate 8472, and they grow their knowledge through assimilation, not experimentation and creativity like humans.

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    Not sure I follow. If the Borg can only learn about species by assimilating them, this means any species could have had the same tactical upper hand as Species 8472 did (at least initially). IIRC, in Q Who the Borg didn't assimilate any humans but the Enterprise wasn't able to easily destroy the Borg cube. With this theory all it would take to destroy the Borg was to find a species that the Borg hadn't assimilated and wouldn't be able to defend themselves against. – Celeritas Nov 24 '14 at 7:39
  • @Celeritas It's not about the species but about their technology, which previously assimilated species' might also have developed in a similar fashion. And in Q Who, a whole piece of Enterprise, including its occupants, was cut out and probably assimilated later on. 8472 were just too different for the Borg to efficiently adapt. Yet. They probably would have figured something out some day, assuming 8472 hadn't wiped them out by then... – Zommuter Oct 3 '16 at 11:12
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The borg adapt in several ways:

  1. grab someone who knows how to defeat technology X
  2. examine technology X to find a known pattern
    • In the case of adapting to phasers, it's just a matter of figuring out the frequency shift patterns and adjusting shields to match it.
    • in the case of cloaks, etc, it's a matter of observing it happen, and then being able to process fast enough to spot the small but important telltales.
  3. try semi-random adaptation attempts from the standard library until something works.

In the case of 8472, they hadn't found the needed combination yet, and appear to have been trying approach 3.

  • Humans make intuitive "fill-in-the-gaps" while borg don't.
  • Humans tend to qualitatively judge while borg seem to boolean judge things; this allows humans to better detect similarity of a failure that took longer to fail and of success.
  • Humans thus could see what partially worked as a partial success, and go from there, while the borg simply chalk that attempt as a failure.
    • until the borg have failed in all major trees, they are unlikely to start looking at various branches of failed tree stems; given their history, they have a LOT of stems to try before they get to additional branches of stems where the stem didn't succeed.
    • due to 8472's successes versus the borg, reports were limited as to what had been tried, leading to duplication of failed attempts.
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When the Borg attempted to assimilate Species 8472, they found that the species was immune to assimilation -- their immune system was so efficient that any foreign body their cells encountered was immediately destroyed, including Borg nanoprobes.

Moreover, since the Borg learned about different species solely by means of assimilation; they were unable to understand or adapt to Species 8472's technology.

from memory alpha

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They actually mentioned this in Scorpion 1 I believe. Janeway mentioned in the briefing that the Borg learn via assimilation and what they can't assimilate, they can't understand. The Voyager crew however study things to learn. They look at the data they've collected and figure out the best possible actions by trial and error and testing.

  • It's also important to note that from what we have seen through TNG and VOY, that whatever they assimilate is ONLY what they understand. In Best of Both Worlds, a rotating phaser modulation was used to get past the personal Borg shields. The same was also used on the ship phasers. It's likely to assume that since that trick worked, they were only experienced with weapons at specific modulations, meaning that no previous race that had been assimilated had tried it, otherwise the Borg may have been able to steamroll the away team or the ship. – Brandon Zadel Jan 16 '16 at 5:38

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