This is a novel I read a couple years ago (so at least that old), but I'm fairly sure it came out after 2010.
It centers around a bunch of people who are apprentices of someone who is not called God but might as well be God. The apprentices live in a library; the library is protected by zombies and dogs. Each apprentice studies a different topic and is not allowed to learn about other apprentices' topics; some of the topics include math, violence, animals, healing, and the afterlife. The apprentices dress oddly because they grew up in the library and don't understand fashion.
An initial plot point involves God going missing. Later the Sun goes out and is then replaced with a black sun. The main/POV characters are the apprentice who focuses on human languages, a burglar, and a US government agent of some sort (military? FBI?). One of the chapters is titled "Half a Fuckton of Lying-Ass Lies".