As the title says, are there any races in the Star Trek universe whose dietary requirements are different enough, that they couldn't survive on the foods from another world, or where such food may even be toxic to them?
The best I've found is the TNG episode where Dr. Pulaski takes a counter-agent to be able to share the Klingon tea ceremony with Worf. However, she also notes that this tea is not too healthy to Klingons either.
In DS9, Ben Sisko is seen drinking Raktajino, which someone (I don't remember who) also refers to as Klingon coffee, on several occasions. In one episode of DS9, O'Brien is seen buying a jumja stick, a Bajoran lollipop, from a shop on the promenade, and he also points out its sweetness is natural. In one episode, Jadzia Dax suggests that Ben Sisko eat his azna steamed. It's not clearly stated that azna is originally a non-Earth food, but Memory Alpha states that The Star Trek Cookbook has a recipe for azna "adapted for terrestrial kitchens", which suggests to me that it not originally an Earth dish. I've not found the actual recipe, only a reference to said cookbook, and I'm assuming it's a printed book. The Bajoran dish hasperat is also mentioned in several episodes of DS9, but I don't recall actually ever seeing it being eaten. Klingon Gagh is, if I remember correctly, seen eaten by Dr. Bashir at least once.
All of these are examples of one species being able to digest the foods of another species, but apart from Dr. Pulaski needing a counter-agent to be able to drink the Klingon tea, I can't remember any instances where the foods of one race don't meet the dietary requirements of another, or where foods that are essential to one species may even be toxic to another species. So in short, are there any known species in the Star Trek universe who could not sustain themselves on the foods of another species, or who might even die or fall severely ill from eating foods of another species?
And to clarify, I'm asking whether there are species who can not sustain themselves or who'd die or fall ill from the diet of another species. If a species could not eat e.g. Human food, but they could find something else on Earth that could sustain them, then that species would qualify for an answer to this question, since the diet of another species could not sustain them.
To further clarify, I'm adding some constraints:
I'll consider only the dominant species of a planet, i.e. the species that have achieved warp capabilities or, in pre warp civilizations, the species that are likely to achive warp capabilities.
If two or more species of comparable intelligence originated on the same planet, they are considered separate species, and all may be considered.
Only species who have been depicted or explicitly mentioned in official canon will be considered.
For dietary requirements to be considered incompatible with that of another species, it must be either toxic, causing at least a moderate level of discomfort, or insufficient, causing malnutrition.
Dietary requirements can be met by any method of extracting energy and nutrients from a substance, not just eating or drinking. Species that do not eat or drink, might still be able to extract energy and nutrients by some other means. If they can do so from another species's food, the dietary requirements are considered compatible.
To be considered to have different enough dietary requirements, it must be evident beyond reasonable doubt that the requirements of a species are incompatible with that of at least 75% of all other considered species.