Short story, probably in an anthology, which I think I read in 1970s or 1980s.
The protagonist buys a plantation on a distant planet, which grows a valuable, very durable, product. He gets a good deal but later sees a small black spot on an aerial photo and realises this an infestation of very tough animals (they may have got their strength from the plant material). His research shows that all previous infestations had grown until they caused huge damage. No doubt this was why he'd got such a good deal.
He proceeds to apply his scientific skill to the problem and does eventually (I think) solve the problem.
One thing I recall is that at one stage he gets trapped in a blockhouse with a huge fire burning all around him, and using up the air. He uses electrolysis to extract oxygen from water to allow him to keep breathing.